How is it Made?

The Farm
A Mill!

Click on the numbers to explore each
stage of the Milling Process!

1. Silo

This is a tall building which houses several round bins which hold up to 250 tonnes of wheat.

The wheat is brought in by a truck then put into these round bins by a conveyor belt. In the silo the wheat is cleaned and dried.

2. The Screen Room

Cleaning, Washing and Tempering

When the wheat is taken from storage in the silo it passes through the "screen room" - the wheat cleaning plant. Here machines remove the dirt and impurities.

There are several machines which do this job:

    The Separator

The first stage of cleaning the wheat is a machine called a "separator". This machine removes the rubbish from the wheat: any bits of stalk and any bits of the wheat which are not needed for milling.

This process is called "winnowing" - separating the wheat from the chaff (rubbish). Air streams are used to separate the rubbish from the heavier wheat grains.

    The Stoner

When the rubbish has been removed the grain is then taken by elevator up a floor to the Stoner.

This is a sloping table which vibrates and the heavier stones are shook out and collected to be thrown away. Magnets are used to remove bits of iron and steel.

    The Scourer

The wheat is then taken to a machine called a Scourer. This loosens the skin of the wheat and removes the "beard" - the hairy bit at the top of the grain.

3. The Break Rolls

We are now in the main part of the Mill. The first stage of milling is on the ground floor. Here the grain is passed through a series of fluted rolls, called "First Break Rolls", which turn at different speeds.

This is a very delicate task as the grain must not be crushed but cracked open to separate the inner white piece from the outer skin.
If the wheat was crushed the bits of the grains' skin would become mixed into the flour and would badly discolour the flour and spoil its ability to bake bread.

The grain has now been separated into Semolina and the bits of outer skin, Bran and Starch.
When this is done the coarse flour and semolina is sent by air through pipes to the next stage at the top of the mill - the "Sieves" and "Purifiers".

4. Sieves

After the flour has been through the First Break Rolls, it is then sent through pipes, by air, to the top floor of the mill to the next stage.

Here the rest of the bits of outer skin still stuck to the coarse flour are removed through a machine called a "Plansifter".

The "Plansifter" is large box containing large sieves, one below the other, which swings from side to side.

The first set of sieves remove the bits of Bran skins, these have bits of flour stuck to them, so they go back go back to be treated again. The last sieves are made of silk and these separate out the fine white flour which goes to the flour packing spout.

The bits which are too large to be packed as flour are known as "Semolina".This is sent to the next stage to a "Purifier".

Also, on this floor the extra vitamins, iron and Calcium Carbonate are added to the flour.

5. Purifier

The "Purifier" is a sloping table which separates out the broken parts of the wheat according to size and weight using currents of air.

The Bran skins are lighter than the floury parts and float to the top. This means the heavier white flour parts stay to be separated by the sieving motion of the table.

The inner floury part - the Semolina - is then sent to the next stage of the milling process the - "Smooth Reduction Rolls" - and the rest of it is sent back to the ground flour to go through another set of Break Rolls.

6. Smoothing Rolls

The Semolina goes through the "Smooth Reduction Rolls" for its final milling into flour.

These Smooth Rolls mill down the inner white portions of the wheat - Semolina - into a smooth, powdery flour.

The process of breaking, sifting and reducing continues until the flour and bran have been completely separated.

The flour which is produced from the First Break Roll is the whitest.

In most Mills there are up to 4 Break Rolls and 12 reduction rolls. Everything which has not been sifted through the Smooth Reduction Rolls the first time to be ground into flour, goes through the cycle again and again. Each time more Bran, more Semolina and more flour is removed.

The Flour and Bran is collected and brought to a packing floor or stored in silos. After being packed into paper sacks or loaded into a tanker it is then transported to the Baker!!