Everything turned into a bit of a mess when the Romans left our shores. The roads bent, the water went cold and the standard of bread making went totally down hill.
Without the Romans to show the way, people returned to the old ways of milling grain and making bread (remember the pot ash?). But help was on its way, the Vikings soon turned up and, as well as building York, plundering our towns and generally taking over, they showed us how they made bread!
However, they hadn't met the Egyptians so yeast was not used. The Vikings brought us Rye from Scandinavia but the bread was hard and unleavened (without yeast). They baked their bread in molds which had a hole in the centre (early bagels?). Why a hole in the middle, I hear you cry? Well it was used to help store the bread - threaded on tent poles!!